There are a number of different management approaches to transformational change. Transformational change is organization-wide, continuous, and usually implemented over long periods of time [ 9 ]. This particular kind of change, as opposed to transitional change, involves a fundamental, almost paradigmatic shift in the priorities, strategies, and culture of the entire organization.
Transitional change focuses on incremental change or replacement of existing processes.
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It is often reactive in nature, and in most cases, it is controlled, deliberate, and planned. The end-state is known and predictable [ 10 , 11 ]. In contrast, transformational change involves more proactive, continuous change [ 12 ]. From a systems perspective, transformational change is emergent in that the end-state is often not exactly known [ 11 , 13 ]. By its nature, transformational change involves re-engineering of the entire organization [ 14 , 15 , 16 ]. There have been a number of different approaches to transformational change that have been used successfully in health care [ 12 , 13 ].
Consistent themes have emerged regarding key drivers that are critical to the success of transformational change efforts. First, while senior leadership support is absolutely essential [ 12 ], the importance of committed, empowered, and accountable clinical leaders at the point of care cannot be emphasized enough [ 13 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ].
Given the multidisciplinary nature of health care today, physician and nurse leadership dyads working with multidisciplinary teams have been particularly successful [ 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 ]. The most successful organizations at transformational change provide their clinical leaders with the appropriate leadership skills training which frequently include some degree of training in improvement science and adequate resources. Physician leaders especially should be provided with time away from their clinical duties to work with their nursing partners and their teams.
There are a variety of improvement tools available e. However, a standardized approach using a common language to improvement should be used [ 16 ].
Clinically based improvement teams are generally supported by internal quality consultants, project managers, data analysts, and financial analysts in the most successful organizations [ 12 , 13 , 14 ]. For this reason, successful organizations pay particular attention to measurement systems and data management and analysis. In this way, everyone from the board of trustees, chief executive officer, and senior leadership team to middle management and front-line clinical leaders and providers fully know why the organization exists and for what purpose, who they are as an organization and what they stand for, and where the organization is collectively going [ 27 , 28 , 29 ].
In many ways, the mission, vision, and core values are fundamental to the overall culture of an organization, which is fundamental to the success of any transformational change effort.
Treacy and Wiersema [ 30 ] noted in the early s that the top performing companies, the companies that were the leaders in their industry, narrowed their business to focus on delivering superior value to their customers in one of three value disciplines—product leadership, customer intimacy, or operational excellence [ 31 ]. Importantly, these market leaders generated a sustainable competitive advantage through industry leadership in only one of these three value disciplines, while sustaining performance that met industry standards in the other two value disciplines.
An organization that chooses customer intimacy as its value discipline is interested in providing their customers with a total solution, not just a product or service. These organizations are passionate about helping the customer understand what is needed, ensuring a great solution is implemented, and having a great relationship with each and every customer. Structurally, decision-making is often delegated to employees who are closest to the customer. Importantly, market leadership in customer intimacy must be coupled product differentiation and operational efficiency—in other words, market leaders in customer intimacy sustain industry standard performance in the other two value disciplines.
It is a focus on the core processes of invention, product development, and market exploitation. The structure of these organizations tends to be loosely defined in order to enable experimentation as well as creative and entrepreneurial behaviors that lead them into new solutions. Again, market leadership in product leadership must be coupled with operational efficiency and customer responsiveness.
In these organizations, operations are standardized and tightly managed and employees are clear about their responsibilities and their authority.
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Management systems are focused on integrated, reliable, and high-speed transactions, and compliance to norms. In an effort to bring value to customers, these cultures focus on waste and reward efficiency. These organizations are also highly dependent on teamwork through which every team member holds every other team member accountable for achieving the organizations process and outcome measures. Everybody knows the battle plan and the rule book, and when the buzzer sounds everyone knows what he or she has to do.
The heroes in this kind of organization are people who fit in, who came up through the ranks. In operationally excellent organizations, the employee of the year is the best team player and peer recognition is the best complement. Organizations that are market leaders in operational excellence must meet industry-level standards in the other two value disciplines—product differentiation and customer responsiveness. Operational excellence is really about achieving process reliability through continuous process improvement.
Avedis Donabedian proposed the structure-process-outcomes framework to achieve operational excellence. Only by putting the right structures in place with effective and reliable processes can the best outcomes be achieved. When outcomes are measured and followed closely, processes can be evaluated and changed or modified, when necessary and as appropriate, in order to produce even better outcomes [ 32 ]. Processes refer to how care is provided in the delivery system—for example, how different providers interact and work together to take care of patients.
Clinical microsystems appear to be another key driver of successful transformational change [ 12 , 14 , 16 , 49 ], especially when the clinical microsystems are led by empowered, accountable clinical leaders who are trained in process improvement. Front-line leaders will be in the best position to fully know and understand how their individual microsystem functions best. Front-line leaders are ideally positioned to monitor key processes at the unit level and should be trusted to make the right decisions on how best to improve process reliability in order to achieve the best possible outcomes.
Only through process reliability can excellence in operations be achieved. It then follows that operational excellence leads to improved outcomes. Quality healthcare is a complex system of people and processes. When they work effectively together, health care organizations are capable of great clinical outcomes, patient, family, and employee experiences. This complexity requires that clinical leaders and managers and their line employees take full ownership of care, integrating all of the system knowledge and capability in direct service to the patient.
Structuring an organization to enable the line to fully own the outcome produces results. Being collaborative across traditional health care boundaries ensures ones outcome is sustainable. The relationship between physicians, nurses, allied health professionals, patients, and families is a critical component of success in any operationally excellent organization.
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Introduction There is a common refrain heard in many American hospitals today about the quality and cost of health care delivery.
Healthcare Transformation and Changing Roles for Nursing : Orthopaedic Nursing
Several health care systems have organized the structural elements of their delivery system using a systems engineering approach. The industrial engineering literature would describe an individual hospital as a macrosystem consisting of multiple, individual microsystems and mesosystems Fig. The Institute of Medicine suggested that focusing on how small clinical, unit-based teams function and interact with other unit-based teams will lead to transformational change of the overall health care delivery system in its report, Crossing the Quality Chasm [ 35 ].
The business school professor, James Brian Quinn, noted that the top performing Fortune companies all focused on their smallest replicable units, i. In addition, senior leaders, including the chief executive officer and members of the board of trustees, were trained in quality improvement and held hospital leaders accountable for improving safety, patient-family experience, and outcomes [ 54 , 55 ].
Open image in new window. Wheeler declares that he has no conflict of interest. Barb Tofani declares that he has no conflict of interest. Barry Morris declares that he has no conflict of interest. Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors. Health Aff. CrossRef Google Scholar. Health spending in OECD countries: obtaining value per dollar. Why Not the Best?
Results from the National Scorecard on U.
Health System Performance, Squires D, Anderson C. Issue Brief Commonw Fund. Google Scholar. Schoenman JA, Chockley N.