Catering to these requirements, the Centre conducts short term courses and organises in-plant-training programmes using specialized audio and visual aids. Study notes in the form of monograms are prepared on most of the important topics related to foundry operations and technologies. Please have a look at the Bulletin Board for a schedule of programmes to be held in future. They assist the Centre in conducting their various programmes in different locations where IIF Chapters are located.
Please watch this space for updates on the activities of the Centres of Excellence. Incase of any queries please contact the personnel at the addresses given below:. Arjunwadkar Chairman Flat No.
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News and information published in this website are contributions received from members and advertisers, veracity of which are not verified. IIF upon being intimated will immediately remove any content that may be protected by copyright. The Institute of Indian Foundrymen. All Rights Reserved. The pattern is designed with built-in shrinkage and distortion allowances to compensate. It must also be built with a taper in the vertical walls, called a draft, which is necessary to extract the pattern without disturbing the mold walls.
Hollow castings can be created with the use of a core — an additional piece of sand or metal that shapes the internal holes and passages of a casting.
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Each core is positioned in the mold before the molten metal is poured. In order to keep each core in place, the pattern has recesses called core prints where the core can be anchored in place. Molding is the process of preparing a mold to receive molten metal. There are two distinct types of mold processes: Reusable and non-reusable. As the name suggests, reusable molds can be used repeatedly. The casting process does not break down the mold during the metal solidification and cooling process.
Reusable molds are usually made from metal. In contrast, non-reusable molds are temporary objects that are destroyed during the metal solidification and cooling process. The pattern is then removed, cores are set in place, and the gating system is established to guide molten metal into the mold. Each of these general mold method categories has many specialized sub-types optimized for different casting metals and various levels of pattern complexity.
Such methods include slush casting, pressure casting, shell molding, and investment casting. There are two categories of metals that castings are produced from: ferrous metals that contain iron and non-ferrous metals that do not contain iron.
EP2391468A2 - Modified bentonites for advanced foundry applications - Google Patents
Ferrous alloys include steel, malleable iron, and gray iron. The non-ferrous alloys most commonly used in casting are aluminum and copper, however magnesium, nickel, and titanium based alloys are sometimes used for specialized applications. Specialized furnaces are necessary to reach such elevated temperatures.
The metal is melted by supplying electrical energy to the furnace interior via graphite electrodes. Additional chemical energy is supplied by oxy-fuel burners and oxygen lances. Oxygen is injected to remove impurities and other dissolved gasses during the melting process.
As the metal melts, slag forms and floats to the top of the molten metal; the slag, which often contains undesirable impurities, is removed prior to tap out the process of removing metal from the furnace. An induction furnace transfers electrical energy by induction — a high voltage electrical source from a primary coil induces a low voltage, high current in the steel charge, or secondary coil.
Induction furnaces are capable of melting and alloying a wide variety of metals with minimal melt loss, however when it comes to metal refinement they are less capable than electric arc furnaces. Due to their respective strengths and weaknesses, electric arc furnaces are more widely used for melting ferrous metal, while induction furnaces are more dominant in non-ferrous applications. Crucibles, robotic arms, and gravity induced pouring machines are used to move molten metal from one location to another.
Skilled metal workers will also pour molten metal using ladles. Molten metal is poured into the mold through a system of gates and risers; the metal cools and solidifies, permanently adopts the shape of the mold interior void , it occupies. A second significant property may be the "dry strength" or the energy required to remove the solidified casting from the mold.
In conventional foundry mold compositions containing blends of sodium bentonite and calcium bentonite, the dry strength property of the mold may be enhanced by increased amounts of calcium bentonite, which serves to reduce dry strength and facilitates easier removal of the casting from the sand mold. The calcium bentonite, however, may result in degradation of the durability of the mold. A third significant property may be "moldability" or the measurement of apparent cohesion between sand grains of the mold composition.
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Mold compositions deficient in this property may stick in hoppers and transfer equipment, which may be detrimental to the entire casting process. Mold compositions containing calcium bentonite as all or part of the mineral clay content may exhibit improved moldability, particularly when the water content of the mold composition increases.
Various applications of spent foundry sand
AU of the additional, desired foundry mold properties may be attributed to equally by sodium bentonite or calcium bentonite or enhanced by sodium bentonite in the mold composition. The venting qualities of molds and cores depend upon this property. Permeability is influenced by the size, shape and distributing of the grains of the sand, the type and quantity of bonding material, the density to which the sand is rammed and the moisture content.
A friable sand is a sand that is not able to withstand the erosive flow of the molten metal. It will lose sand grains to the moving stream, and will be subject to producing erosion and inclusion defects. Generally, friability is inversely related to compactibility; the lower the compactibility, the higher the friability. The foundry mold may be prepared by: mixing and coating the sand with the binder, water, and the modifier to form a foundry mold composition; introducing the foundry mold composition into a pattern defining a foundry mold; consolidating the foundry mold composition within the pattern to form the foundry mold; and removing the foundry mold from the pattern.
The foundry mold may be as described above. The foundry mold composition may be as described above. While numerous changes may be made by those skilled in the art, such changes are within the scope of the invention. Some embodiments are directed to an additive for providing a desired cation exchange to modify smectite clay binders in foundry mold compositions. Metal carbonates may be useful in providing a source of metal cations for carrying out the exchange.
For example, magnesium carbonates or magnesium calcium carbonates may be useful for providing a source of magnesium useful in carrying out a cation exchange of sodium or calcium in smectite clays. The metal carbonates may be naturally occurring and may be used without any substantial chemical processing.
For example, magnesium carbonate may form a mineral commonly referred to as magnesite and magnesium calcium carbonate may form a mineral commonly referred to as dolomite. These minerals may be mined and processed into a reactive powder. Further, the use of naturally occurring minerals may allow for the desired cation exchange while also presenting an economically attractive alternative to more costly manufactured additives.
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The foundry mold composition may include a foundry sand combined with a binder e. The binder may act to consolidate the foundry sand during use, allowing the mold to hold its shape during production of the metal component. The modifier may react with the binder to alter the foundry properties of the foundry mold. Other additives may be present in some embodiments and may help to compensate for such effects as the thermal expansion of the sand during use.
Each of these components will be described in more detail below. As used herein, the term "consolidate" is intended to refer to any process capable of forming a substantially conglomerated material in a desired shape. Any binder ordinarily used to consolidate foundry sands can be used with the foundry sands disclosed herein to enable the sand to retain a predetermined or desired shape as a mold or core material. For example, the binder may include a clay, such as smectite clay. In an embodiment, a smectite clay may be sodium bentonite, which may contain sodium in addition to the components magnesium, aluminum and silica.
Additional species of smectite clay are hectorite and saponite; all of these species naturally occur in quantities sufficient to render them economically practical for use in the production of foundry mold compositions. The additional species nontronite, beidellite, or sauconite may be suitable for achieving a desired combination of foundry mold properties. Other species of clay such as kaolinite or illite may be used as binders in combination with the smectite clays.